Opticians say people are so addicted to smartphones they may be increasing their risk of eye damage.

Optician Andy Hepworth said: “Blue violet light is potentially hazardous and toxic to the back of your eyes.

“So over a long period of time it can potentially damage your eyes. “When you’re looking at a smart phone, the light peaking out of that is blue violet.”

He says tests have found that over exposure to blue-violet light has the potential to put us at greater risk of macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness.

“It’s the combination of not blinking enough and bringing the device closer than you normally look at objects – it strains your eyes” Andy Hepworth Optician Opticians say that, although “good” blue light (blue- turquoise) is needed to help regulate biological clocks, it is also thought that extensive exposure to blue violet light can disrupting sleep patterns and affect moods.

bbc.co.uk: published: Friday, 28 March 2014


More than nine out of 10 young people expose themselves to the blue light from smartphones and tablets, before bed, causing problems with sleep.

“The blue light from these devices suppresses the production of the sleep-inducing hormone melatonin, so it’s important to avoid them before bed time,” said Prof Richard Wiseman, from the University of Hertfordshire.

“This is a huge rise, and the results are extremely worrying because getting less than seven hours sleep a night is below the recommended guidelines, and is associated with a range of problems, including an increased risk of weight gain, heart attacks, diabetes and cancer,” Prof Wiseman said.

Last week it was revealed opticians were warning that overuse of smartphones may be increasing people’s risk of eye damage.

Optician Andy Hepworth said: “Blue violet light is potentially hazardous and toxic to the back of your eyes.

“So over a long period of time it can potentially damage your eyes. “When you’re looking at a smart phone, the light peaking out of that is blue violet.”

The news came as a survey of 2,000 people suggests under-25s check their phones 32 times a day.

bbc.co.uk: published: Friday, 4 April 2014 12:00 UK


A study by Spanish researchers found that eco-friendly LED lights can be damaging to your retinas, which cannot regrow or be replaced. …

Dr. Celia Sanchez Ramos said damaged retinas are likely to become an epidemic sometime soon because of the use of computer, mobile phone and TV screens, and even traffic lights and street lights, which have been gradually replaced with LED technology.

UPI.com: Published: May 11, 2013 at 11:53 AM


An investigation carried out by Spanish researchers has revealed that there is one noteworthy dark side to LED lights. Thus, environmental benefits aside, it appears that LED lights can negatively affect humans and make them go blind.

Dr. Celia Sánchez-Ramos, a specialist currently working with the Complutense University in Madrid, explains that the retina works by detecting light and thus enabling us to see.

However, she says that prolonged exposure to LEDs, which emit a short-wave, high-energy blue and violet light, harms the cells that make up the retina.

“This problem is going to get worse, because humans are living longer and children are using electronic devices from a young age, particularly for schoolwork,” said research wished to stress.

“Eyes are not designed to look directly at light – they are designed to see with light,” she further pointed out.

May 15th, 2013, 08:08 GMT · By Laura Sinpetru


This blue light photochemical injury to the human retina is termed photoretinitis. Photoretinitis can result from either viewing an extremely bright light source for a short amount of time or a less bright source for a longer period of time. Excessive exposure to harmful blue light radiation is linked to the increased risk of macular degeneration in humans.

Turnbull, David J. (2006) Development of a photosensitive polymer for measurement of damaging blue light exposures. In: Australian Institute of Physics 17th National Congress 2006, 3-8 Dec 2006, Brisbane, Australia.


Study found that exposure to LED lights can cause irreparable harm to the retina of the human eye.

Once the retina cells are destroyed by prolonged and continuous exposure to LED rays, they cannot be replaced and will not regrow, ThinkSpain.com reported.

Researchers said this is caused by the high levels of radiation in the ‘blue band’, and is likely to become a global epidemic in the medium term given that computer, mobiles and TV screens, and even traffic and street lights, have been gradually replaced with LED.

The Hindu.com: LONDON, May 15, 2013


Energy-efficient LED lights are earth-friendly, and these days they’re in everything from computers to TVs to street lights. That’s a problem, since new research indicates the light-emitting diode bulbs can cause irreparable damage to your eyes. Researchers from Madrid’s Complutense University say this is likely caused by the high levels of radiation in the blue band of the light’s spectrum, which can destroy or permanently damage cells in your retina.

msn.com: 5/16/2013


Dr. Celia Sánchez-Ramos from Complutense University, Madrid, led this particular study and explained that the lights emitted from LED lights come from the high energy violet and blue end of the visible light spectrum. Long term exposure to this light is enough to permanently damage the retina of the human eye. The retina, the light sensitive tissue that helps detect light and allows us to see, can be severely affected by prolonged exposure to the light emitted from these LED lights.

First Posted: May 15, 2013 08:08 AM EDT


…The science of blue light damage at high intensity is well studied, and it is known to be cumulative over durations up to hours….

…“Recent studies suggest that the blue end of the light spectrum may also contribute to retinal damage and possibly lead to AMD,” said the American Macular Degeneration Foundation. “The retina can be harmed by high-energy visible radiation of blue/violet light that penetrates the macular pigment found in the eye. According to a study by The Schepens Eye Institute, a low density of macular pigment may represent a risk factor for AMD by permitting greater blue light damage.”…

Electronics Weekly.com; alun Williams; 2012/11/08


… The invention of fluorescent lighting, TV, desk and laptop computers, iPads, handheld phones, and video games have recently and dramatically changed this pattern. We are increasingly exposed to blue light in a way that has had a significant effect on our natural rhythms. Blue light is now ingrained in our society during all hours of the day. Research by NASA has shown that the presence of blue light in the “dark” portion of the human circadian rhythm is disruptive to the human sleep cycle. Blue light has also been shown to drastically reduce the production of Melatonin, the brains natural sleep-aid. NASA researchers have created a simulated sleep/wake schedule for their astronauts by altering the wavelengths of light in the shuttle in accordance with natural circadian rhythm. This promotes sleep, thereby wellness for their orbiting astronauts.

12-28-2012, 12:23 PM


More recently, research on human fetal cell tissue has also revealed damage from blue light exposure.


“The photoreceptors in the retina . . . are susceptible to damage by light, particularly blue light. The damage can lead to cell death and diseases.”

Shaban H, Richter C. A2E and blue light in the retina: the paradigm of age-related macular degeneration. Biol Chem 2002 Mar-Apr;383(3-4):537-45.


“The effectiveness of light in inducing photodamage to the retina increases with decreasing wavelength from 500 to 400 nm.”

Andley UP,? L.T. Chylack Jr LT. Recent Studies on Photod amage to the Eye with Special Reference to Clinical and Therapeutic Procedures. Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine 1990; 7:98-105.


“. . . high levels of exposure to blue or visible light may cause ocular damage, especially later in life, and may be related to the development of age-related macular degeneration.”

Taylor HR, West S, Munoz B, Rosenthal FS, Bressler SB, and Bressler NM. The Long Term Effects of Visible Light on the Eye. Archives of Ophthalmology 1992; 110:99-104.


“Visible light of short wavelength (blue light) may cause a photochemical injury to the retina, called photoretinitis or blue-light hazard.”

Okuno T, Saito H, Ojima Evaluation of blue-light hazards from various light sources. J. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:104-12.


“Exposure to the eye to intense light, particularly blue light, can cause irreversible, oxygen-dependent damage to the retina. We have found that illumination of human retinal pigment epithelium cells induces significant uptake of oxygen that is both wavelength and age dependent…and contribute to the development of age-related maculopathy.”

Rozanowska M, et al. Blue light induced reactivity of retinal age pigment. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1995; 270(32):18825-18830.

(Biosyntrx mantra: Friday Pearls; May 27, 2005)


The power of the blues

While light of any kind can suppress the secretion of melatonin, blue light does so more powerfully. Harvard researchers and their colleagues conducted an experiment comparing the effects of 6.5 hours of exposure to blue light to exposure to green light of comparable brightness. The blue light suppressed melatonin for about twice as long as the green light and shifted circadian rhythms by twice as much (3 hours vs. 1.5 hours).

(Harvard Health Publications ( Harvard Medical School) 2012/5/1 )


Harmful Effects

The retina of the human eye does not handle blue light well. Doctor Sliney of the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine in Maryland states that blue light sends an extremely intense signal to the muscles of the eye telling them to shut down. This can cause severe headaches and nausea. Intense blue light is also capable of causing permanent photochemical damage to the eye.

(By Jesse Broadt, eHow Contributor)


… Recent studies suggest that the blue end of the light spectrum may also contribute to retinal damage and possibly lead to AMD. The retina can be harmed by high-energy visible radiation of blue/violet light that penetrates the macular pigment found in the eye. According to a study by The Schepens Eye Institute, a low density of macular pigment may represent a risk factor for AMD by permitting greater blue light damage.

American Macular
Degeneration Foundation


Visible light of short wavelength (blue light) may cause a photochemical injury to the retina, called photoretinitis or blue-light hazard.

(Okuno T, Saito H, Ojima J. Source: National Institute of Industrial Health, Tama-ku, Kawasaki, Japan. Dev Ophthalmol. 2002;35:104-12.)


Nancy Quinn, a registered nurse and an expert on blue light emissions from VDTs wrote:

“Blue light wavelengths and part of the blue spectrum are focused in front of the retina, while green and yellow are focused on the retina, and some red spectrum is focused behind. Thus blue light contributes little to visual acuity and visual perception loses sharpness as the blue light component adds significantly to the eye’s energy expenditure for focusing, and if reduced can greatly reduce eyestrain without loss of acuity.”

There is mounting medical evidence that prolonged exposure to blue light  may permanently damage the eyes, contribute to the formation of cataracts and to the destruction of cells in the center of the retina (1995).

(Elaine Kitchel, M.Ed.; American Printing House for the Blind; June (2000). NY: AFB Press)


… Blue light has a very short wavelength and is detectable by the human eye. Not only does it provide basic illumination to our world, blue light also helps to increase feelings of well being. But exposure to large amounts of blue light can be harmful to the eye.

The plethora of electronic devices in use today, such as cell phones, tablets, and laptop computers, has drastically increased our exposure to blue light.

…the biggest threat of blue light is the role it plays in the development of age-related macular degeneration, mainly in the form of photo-oxidation.

(By Troy Bedinghaus, O.D., About.com Guide; Updated October 30, 2012) http://vision.about.com/od/sportsvision/a/Blue-Light-Exposure.htm

Retinal light damage has been studied by exposing experimental animals and cell cultures to brilliant light exposures for minutes to hours. According to some of these studies, blue light waves may be especially toxic to those who are prone to macular problems due to genetics, nutrition, environment, health habits, and aging. On the other hand, acute retinal phototoxicity experiments such as these can cause retinal injuries, but they cannot simulate a lifetime of normal light exposure.

… Research, however, shows that high illumination levels of blue light can be toxic to cellular structures, test animals, and human fetal retinas.

(by Dan Roberts, Founding Director Updated October 3, 2011)


Could a common component used in consumer electronics lead to eyestrain, headaches, disturbed sleep, and even increase the risk of cancer? It sounds alarmist, but in fact the first three of these claims are accepted as fact by experts in relevant fields…

… The blue LED. Yes, those bright blue sparks of light on mobile phones, PCs, toasters, TVs, monitors, air purifiers, medical equipment, electric toothbrushes, and thousands of other products.

(By Texyt Staff – Mon, 01/15/2007 – 18:13.)


The photoreceptors in the retina, designed to initiate the cascade of events which link the incoming light to the sensation of ‘vision’, are susceptible to damage by light, particularly blue light. The damage can lead to cell death and diseases.

(by Shaban H, Richter C.; Institute of Biochemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich.; Biol Chem. 2002 Mar-Apr;383(3-4):537-45.)


Blue light from digital devices and the sun transforms vital molecules in the eye’s retina into cell killers, according to optical chemistry research at The University of Toledo.

The process outlined in the study, which was recently published in the journal Scientific Reports, leads to age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the United States.



A study claims that LED lights cause retina damage.

A new study shows that LED lights, or light emitting diodes might cause permanent retina damage.

Researchers from Complutense University in Spain conducted a study on the effects of LED radiation and found that it damaged “human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro”.

LED lights have a blue band of light that is likely the cause of the damage.

Prolonged exposure to LED lights may be hazardous since many electronic devices, along with street and traffic lights have been replaced by LED lights.

Doctor Celia Sanchez Ramos, co-author of the study, said: “This problem is going to get worse, because humans are living longer and children are using electronic devices from a young age, particularly for schoolwork.”

People reportedly have their eyes open for 6 thousand hours a year, and much of the time is spent in artificial lighting.

Another energy efficient light source has also been criticized for containing the heavy metal mercury, and for giving off too much ultraviolet radiation.

Compact fluorescent light bulbs, known as CFLs save energy, but at high exposure levels they might cause skin cancer, or skin cell damage.



Dr. Holly Showalter explains what blue light is and why it’s harmful. For additional natural health videos, visit www.ihealthtube.com



Dr. Robert Abel, Jr. on what the different types of light are and how they affect our eyesight. More health videos can be found at http://www.ihealthtube.com



This video from the Price Lab highlights the dangers to the eye of looking at bright lights, especially LED lights with a strong peak output in the 440 to 460nm range, e.g., LED operating theater lights or a dental curing light. For more information and references relating to the blue light hazard,



Macular pigment is like “internal sunglasses” that protects the photoreceptors (cones and rods) in the back of your eye from harmful blue light, while mitigating a key risk factor (low macular pigment) for Age-Related Macular Degeneration, and improving visual performance.



A leading cause of vision loss in people over 65 is AMD, a breakdown of the macula that causes central vision to be blurry, distorted, or have dark areas. There are two forms of AMD: dry AMD and wet AMD. Ninety percent of the people with AMD have the dry form. Early detection can slow visual loss.



Learn the top 11 macular degeneration risk factors. If you or a family member suffer from age related macular degeneration, then watch this video to learn the top risk factors for macular degeneration and the best ways to reduce your risk of developing macular degeneration.



香港壹週刊 第1242期 2013年12月26日








3C藍光 黃斑部病變機率增愛眼小百科疾病大全 – udn健康醫藥

Power By udn.com【聯合報楊長豪/台大醫院眼科部主治醫師】2013/03/12


「光線對眼睛的傷害」是指「藍光對黃斑部的傷害」,光線照射日久,藍光對黃斑部造成慢性刺激,這種慢性刺激舉例而言,就好比握筆寫字,最後因摩擦食指會形成癤結一樣(圖六),光線尤其是藍光刺激黃斑部,最終也會形成「隱結」。陳瑩山眼科醫師醫療網Dr. Eye Chan Online 2009.09.03


可見光線中藍光對人體眼睛傷害最大,是因為藍光(波長在 40mm~500mm )頻率高,所攜帶能量較高,傷害也較強;而眼睛角膜和水晶體能吸收光線中大部分的紫外線,但少部分的紫外線跟波長較長的藍光就會到達視網膜。


專家研究發現,藍光會對視網膜造成傷害,加速視網膜黃斑區的細胞氧化(產生自由基),照射過量甚至會損傷視覺細胞。0-4 歲是眼睛發育的高峰期,如果黃斑區長期接觸藍光,會增加年老時眼睛出現黃斑病變的風險。









香港蘋果日報 2013年05月16日 http://hk.apple.nextmedia.com/news/art/20130516/18261766 


香港蘋果日報 記者:鍾麗霞 20130820



中國時報 李盛雯/台北報導 2013-04-30 http://news.chinatimes.com/LifeContent/1404/20130430000997.html 


公視新聞網 ︱醫療記者賴淑敏徐啟峰台北報導(2013-09-04 19:00)  晚間新聞




蓝光会使眼睛内的黄斑区毒素量增高严重威胁我们的眼底健康——源于2010《America Academy of Ophthalmology》。






新世紀LED2012/11/5 作者:熊作峰 来源:新浪博客



德国眼科专家李查德·冯克(R.H.W. Funk)教授的研究报告指出当“不合适的光”持续照射我们的眼睛,会引起功能失调,尤其是三基色灯,电脑屏幕等发出的含有大量不规则频率的高能短波蓝光,这些短波蓝光具有极高能量,能够穿透晶状体直达视网膜,对视网膜造成光化学损害,直接或间接导致黄斑区细胞的损害。

Bai Du 百度百科 http://baike.baidu.com/view/7318790.htm#1 


美國俄亥俄州托雷多大學(University of Toledo)在《科學報告》(Scientific Reports)期刊發表研究指出,上述電子裝置發出的光線,會讓眼睛產生有毒分子,導致黃斑點退化等視力問題,其中以藍光的殺傷力最大。參與研究的助理教授卡魯納拉斯尼(Ajith Karunarathne):「藍光傷害眼睛的視網膜,導致視力受損已不是秘密。」